PC Leung, OBE, JP, Hon DSSc, DSC, MBBS, MS, FRACS, FRCS (Edin), FHKCOS, FHKAM (Orth); is Emeritus Professor of Orthopedics & Traumatology, Faculty of Medicine; Director of Centre for Clinical Trials on Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Medicine; Director, The Hong Kong Jockey Club Centre for Osteoporosis Care and Control, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 1996-2013; Director, Partner State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China (The Chinese University of Hong Kong). He is also the Past President of the International Research Society of Orthopedic Surgery and Traumatology (SIROT), 2009-2012. His research areas include Orthopaedics, Osteoporosis, Microsurgery Health, Traditional Chinese Medicine and General Education. He is also the author of over 800 scientific manuscripts in journals and 27 books. Examples of publication related in Chinese medicine include: “A Comprehensive Guide to Chinese Medicine”, “Book in preparation: A Scientist View on Traditional Chinese Medicine”, “Limb Salvage for Diabetic Ulceration with Traditional Chinese techniques”, “Treatment of Low Back Pain with Acupuncture” etc. In addition, he has also been appointed as editor of 11 International journals since 1982.
Introduction: Many herbal formulae in Chinese Medicine are believed to have anti-inflammatory effects suitable for pain control in arthritic conditions Er-Miao-San (EMS) is a traditional Chinese herbal formulation that contains combinations of Rhizoma Atractylodis (RA) and Cortex Phellodendri (CP). It exhibits analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities and have been used for the treatment of various painful conditions for thousand years in China. The aims of the present study were to investigate the anti-inflammatory activities of EMS and elucidate the underlying mechanisms with regard to its molecular pathway of action.rnrnMethods: The anti-inflammatory effects of EMS were studied by using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated activation of nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in mouse RAW264.7 macrophages. Expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) phosphorylation, p65 phosphorylation, inhibitor-κBα (IκBα) degradation, and NF-κB DNA- binding activity were further investigated.rnrnResults: The study demonstrated that EMS could suppress the production of NO in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. However, CP or RA alone did not have significant inhibitory effect on them. EMS also inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta and macrophage chemotactic protein1. Further investigations showed EMS could suppress iNOs expression and p38 phosphorylation. EMS significantly decreased the content of IκBα, reduced the level of phosphorylated p65 and suppressed the NF-κB DNA-binding activity. All these results suggested the inhibitory effects of EMS on the production of inflammatory mediators through the inhibition of the NF-κB pathway.rnrnDiscussion: Our results indicated that EMS inhibited inflammatory events and iNOS expression in LPS- stimulated RAW264.7 cells through the inactivation of the MAPK and NF-κB pathway. This study gives scientific evidence validating the use of EMS in treatment of patients with rheumatoid-like arthritic conditions, as a supplement to standard medications.rn
N Kavtaradze is a Research Scientist at Tbilisi State Medical University I Kutateladze Institute of Pharmacochemistry. She has done her PhD in Pharmacy in 2005 and her research interest includes the natural biologically active Polyphenols and Cycloartanic compounds. She has published 26 papers in peer-reviewed journals, made 21 presentations at international scientific meetings, and has 3 patents.
Plants due to their ability to avoid detrimental conditions by removing themselves from the source of danger, have evolved as a whole battery of protective compounds including (poly)phenols. This encouraged us to study chemical composition of Rhododendron ungernii Trautv. and Pueraria hirsuta Matsum. The chemical investigation of R. ungernii revealed that its leaves are rich in phenolics like quercetin, quercitrin, hiperin, rutin, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, (+)-gallocatechin, leucoanthocyanidin, etc. An ointment, Rodopes which is for external application containing 5% of active substance fraction of phenolic compounds from the leaves of R. ungernii, which was developed at the I Kutateladze Institute of Pharmacochemistry and approved for treatment of Herpes virus induced disorders. In order to extend the clinical application of Rodopes, its wound healing potential was studied in an excision wound model in mice. In Rodopes-treated animals, faster regeneration of tissues and wound closure is observed due to increased infiltration of macrophages, neutrophils, and fibroblasts in the wound bed. Rodopes accelerates scab rejection and full re-epithelization with no signs of bacterial contamination and contributes to form smooth soft scars disappear in 1-2 days. The dry extract of Pueraria hirsuta leaves containing mainly robinin (up to 1.7 %) and other flavonoid glycosides such as rutin, nicotiflorin, daidzin appeared capable to decrease blood levels of urea, residual nitrogen, and creatinine in both intact rats and in rats with a model acute renal failure caused by mercury dichloride. The obtained results suggest the application of P. hirsuta dry extract for treatment of acute renal failure.