Day 2 :
- Sessions: Pharmacology; Toxicology; Drug Discovery & Drug Screening; Ethnopharmacology; Clinical Pharmacology & Receptor Therapy; Psychopharmacology & Neuropharmacology
King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia
Dr. Hesham N. Mustafa has received his MD in basic medical sciences (Anatomy) from Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt at 2009. Currently, he is working as an associate professor in basic medical sciences (Anatomy) department, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. He has published more than 15 papers in reputed journals and been serving as an editorial board member and a reviewer at many reputed Journals. He received Certificate for Highly Cited Paper from Elsevier in December, 2016 And Award of Excellence of Scientific Publication for the staff members, from Deanship of Scientific Research, King Abdulaziz University.
Background. Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) represents the main reason for acute kidney injury (AKI). Dexmedetomidine (Dex) and Benincasa cerifera (BC) have wide beneficial effects being anti-inflammatory and antioxidants. This study aims illustrate the protective effects of BC and Dex on renal IRI of diabetic model.
Methods. Sixty Male Albino Rats (Wistar strain), weighing 250-300 g. Rats were divided in to 4 groups; Sham group: Non-diabetic. DM+IRI group: STZ-diabetic rats exposed for renal IRI on days 30 after diagnosis of diabetes. DM+IRI+BC group: STZ-diabetic rats were treated with Benincasa Cerfera (500 mg/kg) for 30 days after diagnosis of diabetes then they exposed for renal IRI. DM+IRI+Dex group: STZ-diabetic rats were treated with Dex (100µg/kg intra-peritoneal) 5 minutes before induction of ischemia on day 30 after diagnosis of diabetes then they exposed for renal IRI. Biochemical parameters, histopathological examination and immunohistochemical markers were evaluated.
Results. Significant improvement of biochemical, histopathological and immunohistochemical parameters in (DM+IRI+BC) group while (DM+IRI+Dex) group showed an improving in renal IRI and dyslipidemia.
Conclusion. The present study demonstrated that oxidative stress plays a chief role in renal IRI in STZ-induced diabetic model. Treatment with BC achieved excellent ameliorative effects while treatment with DEX improves renal IRI.
He is currently an assistant lecturer at Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwor,Ebonyi State,Nigeria.His bachelors degree is in Medicine and Surgery(MBBS).Currently he is running a masters degree in Pharmacology and Therapeutics in Ebonyi State University, Nigeria.
Therapeutic drug Monitoring is used to monitor a patient’s progress in the course of treatment and to enhance their therapeutic outcome of patients on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy(HAART). It is aimed at identifying drug dependent toxicity in other to adjust dose or change regime among these group of patient. This is extremely important for drugs with narrow therapeutic index. Chromatography and Immunoassay can be employed in this process especially as because of its specificity and cost effectiveness in estimation of therapeutic drug monitoring. Although this requires expertise and highly trained personnel for this to be carried out. This is most crucial aspect of therapeutic drug monitoring. The setting up of therapeutic drug monitoring is capital intensive both in terms of equipment and personnel. Nigeria been a developing country suffers is its own set back as it requires political will to enable her carry out effective Therapeutic drug monitoring. Therapeutic drug monitoring team comprises of Medical officer,Pharmacologist,PharmarcistandNurse.Pharmacogentics,clinical toxicologist.Trainining and retraining is highly advocated for Doctors in clinical practice as clinical evidence on its own is not enough to determine toxicity. Regretably in most African Countries, this is not done hence the need for advocacy which is the essence of this paper especially with regard to therapeutic drug monitoring of HAART among HIV patients who will be on life long treatment.
1Department of Pharmacology. Sialkot Medical College, Pakistan.
Khalid AFTAB, PhD male, Pharmacologist, graduated from department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Karachi, Pakistan in 1995. He worked for Pharmaceuticals industry as Quality Control & Quality Assurance professional and was actively involved in Research & Development of Pharmaceutical preparations.
He has worked in few Medical & Dental Colleges & Universities as Assistant, Associate and became full Professor Pharmacology in 2006 and worked as visiting Professor in different Universities & research institutions. From 2009-2011, he has worked in Kingdom Saudi Arabia as a full Professor Pharmacology and currently working as Professor & HoD Pharmacology in SMC, University of Health Sciences.
Only Pakistani Pharmacologist who has got membership of American College of Clinical Pharmacology. Now he has published more than 50 papers in scientific journals of international repute and presented many lectures & poster presentations throughout the world, most awards to him was for the science and technology success. He was involved in drug discovery and the scientific evaluation of traditional remedies used in different disorders. His group has developed expertise in a wide range of activities and made valuable contributions on medicinal value of plants by providing pharmacological basis for their usefulness as antihypertensive, cardio-tonic, laxative, antispasmodic and anti-diarrheal. In recent year, he focused on the Biodiversity & Pharmacological activities of Marine organisms and got some important success.
Holarrhena pubescens belongs to the family Apocynacea, commonly known as “kurchi” is highly reputed in traditional medicine as a remedy for amoebic dysentery and other intestinal ailment. Bioassay-directed fractionation by chromatographic methods the ethanolic extract of Holarrhena pubescens resulted in the isolation of steroidal alkaloids i.e. Holamide and Pubscinine . Holamide showed a three proton doublet at 1.45 (J=6.56 Hz) and two AB doubles at 3.17 and 3.00 each for on proton (J=12.06 Hz) in the 1H NMR spectrum suggested that it belongs to conanine series of alkaloid (A class of compound with the steroid nucleus and a five members heterocyclic ring with nitrogen). In contrast Pubscinine showed one methyl at 1.28 while the doublet is missing a three proton singlet was observed at 2.28 due to a vinylic methyl indicated a double bond in the 18,20 – epimino ring of the conanine series of alkaloids.
In anaesthetized rats, the Holamide and Pubscinine caused a fall in blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment of animals Atropine completely abolished the hypotensive response of Acetycholine; whereas hypotensive effect of Holamide and Pubscinine were not modified by Atropine . Similarly Acetylcholine produced contractile effect in guinea-pig ileum, which was antagonized by atropine, however both (Holamide and Pubscinine) failed to produced any stimulant response on guinea-pig ileum. These data indicate that the steroidal alkaloids i.e. Holamide and Pubscinine from Holarrhena pubescens mediated hypotensive response through a mechanism different to that of Acetycholine.