Scientific Program

Conference Series LLC Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 13th World Congress on Pharmacology and Toxicology Melbourne, Australia.

Day 1 :

Keynote Forum

Yukio Yoneda

Kanazawa University, Japan

Keynote: Stimulation of embryonic and adult neurogenesis by the green tea amino acid theanine

Time : 10:00-10:45

Pharmacology Congress 2018 International Conference Keynote Speaker Yukio Yoneda photo
Biography:

Dr. Yukio Yoneda is a Professor Emeritus in Kanazawa University, where he worked as a Chairman Professor of Pharmacology from 1999 to 2015. He graduated from Osaka University, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences in 1972, followed by appointments in Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, City of Hope Research Institute, CA, USA and Setsunan University. He is serving as an Associate Editor in several international journals such as Neurochemistry International, Neurochemical Research and Journal of Neuroscience Research, in addition to acting on the editorial board in other international scientific journals. His research interests have been lying on pharmacological profiling of amino acid signaling in neuronal and non-neuronal cells using molecular biological techniques. As a return of laboratory experimental results to the community, he is now attempting to develop several dietary supplements beneficial for the prophylaxis of different diseases besides the bench work with colleagues in domestic and foreign universities.

Abstract:

Theanine is an exogenous amino acid in the green tea, rather than black tea and oolong tea, with a chemical structure analogous to several neuroactive endogenous amino acids such as glutamine and glutamate. We have been studying pharmacological profiles of this green tea amino acid featuring higher relevancy to glutamine than glutamate in neural progenitor cells capable of proliferating for self-replication and differentiating into neuronal, astroglial and oligodendroglial lineages in embryonic, developing and adult brains. Significant amelioration was found in cognition ability scores determined by double-blinded expert physicians in healthy elderly age-matched people given capsules of powdered green tea enriched of theanine compared to those with normal green tea powder capsules after daily oral intake for 7 to 12 consecutive months. In cultured neural progenitor cells isolated from embryonic rat and mouse neocortex, theanine promoted both proliferation and subsequent neuronal differentiation in a concentration-dependent manner, along with deteriorated astroglial differentiation. In cultured progenitor cells from the hippocampus of adult nestin-GFP mice, moreover, theanine increased the size of neurospheres composed of clustered proliferating cells after sustained exposure. In murine embryonic carcinoma P19 cells, similar promotion was seen in proliferation and neuronal differentiation after exposure to theanine. Exposure to theanine for a rather long time up-regulated the glutamine transporter Slc38a1 transcript expression in rat and mouse progenitors, whereas theanine failed to further promote both proliferation and neuronal differentiation activities already facilitated in P19 cells stably overexpressing Slc38a1. Theanine would be thus endowed to promote embryonic and adult neurogenesis through acting at neural progenitor cells in a manner related to upregulation of the glutamine transporter Slc38a1 in rodent brains. We have made several dietary supplement products enriched of theanine supposed to be beneficial for the prophylaxis of particular abnormalities in brain functions as a return of research benefit to the community. 

  • Sessions: Pharmacology; Toxicology; Drug Discovery & Drug Screening; Ethnopharmacology; Clinical Pharmacology & Receptor Therapy; Psychopharmacology & Neuropharmacology
Speaker
Biography:

Xiaolong Xu, who received a PhD degree from China Agriculture University (2012-2015), has his expertise in studying traditional Chinses herbal medicines with anti-inflammatory properties. He also engaged in pathogenesis of sepsis, psoriasis, and inflammatory diseases. He is now continuing his research work in Beijing Hospital of Traditonal Chinese Medicine, Beijing Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine, and Beijing Key Laboratory of Basic Research with  Traditional Chinese Medicine on Infectious Diseases.

Abstract:

Current data have shown that punicalagin (PUN), an ellagitannin isolated from Pomegranate, possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties; however, its direct targets have not yet been reported. This is the first report that PTP1B serves as a direct target of PUN, with IC50 value of 1.04 μM. Results from NPOI further showed that the Kon and Koff of PUN-PTP1B complex were 3.38e2 M-1s-1 and 4.13e-3 s-1, respectively. Computation simulation by Autodock 4.0 predicted that PUN inhibited PTP1B via binding to Cys215, Arg221, and Arg24. Moreover, inhibition of PTP1B by PUN promoted an M2c macrophage polarization and enhanced anti-inflammatory expression, including IL-10 and M-CSF. Based on gene expression profile, we elucidated that PUN treatment significantly up-regulated 275 genes and down-regulated 1059 genes. M1 like macrophage marker genes, such as Tlr4, Irf1/2, Hmgb1, and Stat1 were down-regulated, while M2 marker genes, including Tmem171, Gpr35, Csf1, Il1rn, Cebpb, Fos, Vegfα, Slc11a1, and Bhlhe40 were up-regulated in PUN-treated macrophages. Hmox-1, a gene encoding HO-1 protein, was preferentially expressed with 16-fold change. Inhibition of HO-1 obviously restored PUN-induced M2 polarization and IL-10 secretion. In addition, phosphorylation of both Akt and Stat3 contributed to PUN-induced HO-1 expression. This study provided new insights into the mechanisms of PUN-mediated anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities and provided new therapeutic strategies for inflammatory diseases.

 

 

 

P. R. Gajurel

North Eastern Regional Institute of Sciences and Technology (Deemed to be University), Arunachal Pradesh, India

Title: Ethnomedicinal plants and their uses by the indigenous people of north east India: Prospects of ethnoharmacological application
Speaker
Biography:

Dr. P. R. Gajurel hasbeen working in plant diversity and taxonomy of higher plants in the Eastern Himalayan region of India since past 20 years. During the past 10 years he has extensively working on medicinal plants and their management and conservation including the traditional knowledge systems. He has published more than 50 research article and presented paper in about 15 international conferences

Abstract:

The north east India with its eastern Himalayan region is bestowed with diversified medicinal plants which include the globally significant medicinal herbs as well as the underutilized ethnomedicinal herbs. The region comprises of 8 administrative states including the biodiversity  rich states of Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim of eastern Himalaya.  More than 200 ethnic communities are residing in the region and majority of them are still dependent on locally available plants species for curing the different health ailments. Understanding the traditional knowledge and practices of these tribes not only pave the way for identification of the medicinal plants but also for finding new pharmaceutical leads and formulation of valuable drugs. To understands the important ethnobotanical knowledge and the herbal practices adopted by the indigenous people, the authors have been exploring the region continuously for the few years. During the field visits and ethnobotanical data collection the authors could come across with many ethnomedicinal plants which are used for different diseases and ailments. Although some of the medicinal plants used by these communities are already known for their therapeutic potential but the complete bioactive properties of these plants yet to be explored. Moreover, the pharmacological relevance of some of these ethnomedicinal plants  need to be experimented. This will certainly benefit the mankind and also the poor communities through benefit sharing of the commercial outcomes. The present paper discussed the ethnobotanical uses and pharmacological potential of five medicinal plant species used by the local communities of north east India.

 

B. Singh

North Eastern Regional Institute of Science & Technology, Arunachal Pradesh, India

Title: Pharmacological potential medicinal plants of Indian Eastern Himalaya: Notes on present status of occurrence and conservation
Speaker
Biography:

Prof. B. Singh has a long teaching and research experience in the field of horticulture and forestry. During the past 30 years of his research he has contributed in the horticulture, agroforestry and forest resource utilization. He has been working on medicinal plant and their management in the Indian Eastern Himalayan region. He has completed some important projects on medicinal plant diversity distribution and mapping in north eastern of India. Visiting forest areas and exploration of resources for livelihood support to the rural communities are his prime focus presently

Abstract:

Medicinal plants are one of the important forest resources under non timber forest producing plant species and because of their ethno medicinal and pharmacological values they are prioritized in management and conservation practices. The Indian eastern Himalayan is a rich floristic diversity region of the world and recognized as one of the biodiversity hotspot of the world. Because of the altitudinal variation, it harbors almost all the forest types viz. tropical subtropical, temperate and alpine forests. Medicinal plants form one of the important components of these forests and particularly the tropical and alpine forest form the habitat of a large number of high value medicinal plants having pharmacological potential. Many of the medicinal herb like Acorus calamus, Berberis aristata, Coptis teeta, Embelia ribes, Garcinia pedunculata, Homalomena aromatica, Illicium griffithii, , Podophyllum hexandrum, Piper peepuloides, P. mullesua, Sapindus mukorsii, Swertia chirayita, Taxuas wallichiana etc are distributed in the region. To understands their status of occurrence, ecological distribution, threats and conservation status, we have conducted various field studies during the past 10 years. Field survey and studies were conducted in various forest areas including tropical, subtropical and temperate forests. In this paper we discussed the present status of diversity, management and conservation aspects of some high value medicinal plants of eastern Arunachal Pradesh. 

 

Biography:

Abstract:

Introduction: Present study evaluates the effect of 5-HT 1b/d agonist on cognitive function in scopolamine (SPN) induced dementia in rat.

Methods: Dementia was induced by scopolamine (2mg/kg/day) through ip injection for the duration of 21 days. The Effect of zolmitriptan 30 mg/kg, i.p. (ZMT) was observed on cognitive function and parameters of oxidative stress like malondialdehyde (MDA) level, nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were estimated at the end of protocol. Histopathology study of brain tissue was also performed for the determination of amyloid β peptide.

Results: Data of the study suggested that treatment with ZMT alone and in combination with DMP (dextromethorphan) decreases the escape latency in Condition Avoidance Response (CAR) and transfer latency in Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) significantly (p<0.01) compared to NC group. Moreover results of Morris Water Maze (MWM) show an increase in retention time and decrease in escape latency in ZMT alone and in combination with DXM treated group of dementia rats than NC group. There were significant decrease in MDA and NO and increase in SOD & GPX in the brain tissues of ZMT and ZMT+DMP treated group than negative control group. Histopathology study also suggested that the concentration of Aβ peptide decreases in the brain tissues in ZMT and ZMT+DMP treated group than negative control group. 

Conclusion: Thus given study concludes that zolmitriptan restores the congnitive functions & impaired memory in scopolamine induced dementia rat by decreasing oxidative stress and Aβ peptide in the brain tissue of rat.

 

Biography:

Abstract:

Lake Victoria is the largest tropical freshwater body in Africa. The lake is fringed by many wetlands that receive pollutants from neighboring farms, industries, and human settlements. The growing concern for fishery resources and reduction of Nile perch (Lates niloticus) in the lake has raised concern. Regards to pollution monitoring strategy in the lake, little information is available on background findings in liver histopathological evaluation of fish. Therefore, our study aimed at identifying certain indices of physiology and liver alterations in Lates niloticus, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), and lungfish (Protopterus species). The indices are conventionally accepted as biomarkers of exposure to pollutants in the aquatic environments. A total of 366 fish were examined, consists of 230 (Oreochromis niloticus), 99 (Lates niloticus), 37 (Protopterus spp). The mean weights of Oreochromis niloticus, Lates niloticus, and Protopterus spp respectively were 319.14 ± 182.16 gm, 556.20 ± 461.21gm, and 949.46 ± 532.47gm. The relationship of weight and length of the fishes showed positive and statistically significant relationship (N= 366, r = 0.883; p< 0.05). Generally, for every unit increases in the total weight (Twt) the liver weight (Lvwt) increases by 0.011gm among the species examined. The mean values of condition factor (CF) for Oreochromis niloticus (1.95 ± 0.33%), Lates niloticus (1.26 ± 0.78%), and Protopterus spp (0.54 ± 0.87%) were recorded. However, the distribution of CF across categories of species, and sex showed significant differences (p< 0.05). To differentiate levels of contamination between the sampling sites, CF of the species in corresponding sampling sites showed significant differences across Ggaba and Jinja sites, Ggaba and Ports Bell sites, Ggaba and Kasenyi sites (p< 0.05). Moreover, CF values remain similar across Bukakkata and Kasensero sites (p > 0.05). The hepatosomatic index (HSI) for Oreochromis niloticus (1.21 ± 0.63%), Lates niloticus (1.42 ± 0.62%), and Protopterus spp (1.70 ± 0.57%) was found high. Those species expressed statistically significantly differences HSI across the seasons (p< 0.05). The result of vitellogenin (VTG) production in the liver showed a high induction among Oreochromis niloticus (0.77 ± 0.56 µg / L), Lates niloticus, (0.73 ± 0.37 µg / L) and Protopterus spp (0.55 ± 0.12 µg / L), however, it was not a statistically significant (F (2, 69) = 0.358, p= 0.701).  A qualitative evaluation of the livers, the result showed microvesicular and macrovesicular vacuolation, cellular degeneration like karyohexis and pyknosis, sinusoidal enlargement, and infiltrations of mononuclear lymphocyte, focal necrosis, increased Küpffer cells, peripancreatic hepatocyte proliferation, blood congestion within sinusoidal regions. In many samples, the hepatocytes have ruptured cell membranes and irregularities of eosinophilic and basophilic appearance. However, in many samples more than one alteration per liver has been observed. Such alterations observed were sum up for the quantitative scoring. The quantitative liver indices on the degree of tissue alteration (DTA scoring) showed 20.2%  for the normal liver (DTA score; 0-10), slight alterations 8.2% (DTA score; 11-20), moderate alteration 41.3% (DTA score; 21-50),  severe alteration 18.6%  (DTA score; 51-100), irreparable damage of liver tissue 11.7% (DTA score; above 100), and statistically significantly different of DTA scores among the species was observed (F (2, 365) = 4.199, p = 0.016). In conclusion, anthropogenic pollutants impacts the health conditions, they are probably responsible for the fish declined in Lake Victoria. This work provides the first evidence of liver histopathologic lesions, as a screening tool for the impact of contaminants on wild fish populations, inhabiting Lake Victoria, Uganda. The impression is that, such contaminants from domestic, industrial and agricultural residues induce possible health risk to fish, including fish consumers.

 

Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

Healthy kidneys function to remove extra water and wastes, help control blood pressure, keep body chemicals in balance, and keep bones strong. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) occurs when kidneys are no longer able to clean toxins and waste product from the blood and perform their functions to full capacity. Heavy metal toxicity is one of the main causes of CKD in rural areas of India.  Lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and cadmium (Cd) are common heavy metal toxins and cause toxicological renal effects at high levels, in our study A total of 1,797 adults who participated in the KNHANES (a cross-sectional nationally representative survey in INDIA ) were examined, and 128 of them (7.1%) had chronic kidney disease (CKD).. We stratified the analysis according to hypertension or diabetes. In the adults with hypertension or diabetes, CKD had a significant association with elevated blood Cd after adjustment, but no association was present with blood Pb and Hg. The corresponding odds ratio [OR] of Cd for CKD were 1.52 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-2.19, P=0.026) in adults with hypertension and 1.92 (95% CI, 1.14-3.25, P=0.014) in adults with diabetes. Environmental low level of Pb, Hg, Cd exposure in the general population was not associated with CKD. However, Cd exposure was associated with CKD, especially in adults with hypertension or diabetes. This finding suggests that environmental low Cd exposure may be a contributor to the risk of CKD in adults with hypertension or diabetes.

Chronic kidney disease can be diagnosed by blood tests, blood pressure, urine test, x-ray of kidneys, abdominal MRI,CT,CAT,ultrasound , renal scan.

 

Speaker
Biography:

Our research goal is to understand the synaptic mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of chronic pain and psychiatric disorders. We try to understand how brain circuit modulates neuronal transmission in midbrain periaqueductal gray, which is an critical region of midbrain for controlling of pain and emotion. We also try to understand how the analgesic compounds and antidepressants regulate pain and depression leads to therapeutic efficacy in the brain, especially in the periaqueductal gray.

 

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: Major depressive disorder affecting more than 100 million people worldwide every year is a heterogeneous illness. To date, current pharmacotherapies require prolonged administration from several weeks to months for an appreciable response. This is particularly concerning given that suicide risk is elevated in subjects with depression.

Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: It is still unclear that whether ketamine metabolite (2R,6R-hydroxynorketamine; 2R,6R-HNK) rescues chronic stress-elicited depression-like behavior. Depression-like behavior in the rats were induced by learned helplessness (LH) procedure. Forced swim test (FST) and sucrose preference test (SPT) were used to study the depression-like behavior. Findings: Rats receiving learned helplessness procedure exhibited high failure rate in the escapable footshock test compared to control group. LH rats exhibited an increase in immobile time during the FST and a reduction in sucrose consumption. Intraperitoneal ketamine metabolite, 2R,6R-HNK, injection decreased immobile time during the FST and increased sucrose consumption in LH rats.

Conclusion & Significance: Ketamine metabolite 2R,6R-HNK rescues LH-induced depression-like behavior including despair behavior and anhedonia. These results may pave the foundation for a critical issue that ketamine metabolite, 2R,6R-HNK plays crucial roles in stress-induced depression-like behaviors and provides a new insight into depression management and development of antidepressants.

 

Speaker
Biography:

Katrin Mae M. Ortega, a bonifide graduate in Master of Science in pharmacy at the age of 25 years from of University Of Santo Tomas last June 2017 wherein she was awarded a dsitinction of Cum Laude. During her graduate study, Ms Ortega exhibited top performance during written examination as well as oral examinations. She got a Meritus honor on her thesis entitled “Antiangiogenic and AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Activities of Gracilaria coronopifolia J.G. Agardh Extracts”. This study as awarded gold medal in the Technical Poster Competition during 2nd International Science Graduate Scholars” Conference in the theme “From Disccoveries Today to Innovating Tommorow” held at the Philippine International Convention  Center Pasay City.

Abstract:

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an intracellular energy sensor which is important in metabolic regulation, cell growth, and survival. Recently, dysfunction in AMPK is implicated to numerous angiogenesis-related diseases, however, the mechanism remains elusive. In this study, the antiangiogenic activity of the red alga, Gracilaria coronopifolia, was determined through cellular signaling pathway of AMPK. Chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay showed that all extracts of G. coronopifolia inhbited angiogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. Among them, dichloromethane extract exhibited the most potent antiangiogenic activity (IC50 =1.21 μg/mL, p=0.215) followed by hexane extract (IC50=3.08 μg/mL, p=0.479) and methanol extract (IC50=8.93 μg/mL, p= 0.042). Antiangiogenic activity was correlated to a low concentrations of Fe, Zn, and Cu of duck CAM determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometer (fAAS) and colorimetric assay. Likewise, In vitro AMPK signaling assay showed that all extracts activated AMPK, with dichloromethane extract having the lowest EC50 of 70.2 μg/mL. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed the active component of each extracts. Notably, this is the first report on the AMPK activity of G. coronopifolia related to new blood vessel formation and a colorimetric-based correlation of angiogenesis based on Fe, Zn, and Cu concentration in the duck chorioallantoic membrane.

 

Speaker
Biography:

Cao Donghua is a PhD candidate from Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences and  University of Chinese Academy of Sciences. Her Research Interest lies at the crossroads of chemistry and biology, and  endeavors to discover novel active natural products  from medicinal plant. She has published 3 papers in reputed journals .

Abstract:

 

Meliaceous limonoids, characteristic chemical markers of the Meliaceae family, are natural products with both fascinating structures and potential bioactivities that have attracted interest from both natural products chemists and synthetic chemists in the past half century. As part of a continuing search for structurally interesting and biologically important limonoids from the Meliaceae family, the leaves and twigs of Trichilia sinensis collected from Xishuangbanna, Yunnan province of China were investigated. Trichilia sinensis Bentv, a shrub, is native to the south of China and Vietnam, and it has traditional applications for the treatment of several diseases such as abdominal pain caused by Ascaris lumbricoides, chronic osteomyelitis, scabies, and eczema in folk medicine. The three novel rearranged mexicanolide-type limonoids (Trichiliasinenoids A-C) with an unprecedented C-29-C-7 connecting carbon skeleton formed by migration of C-7 from C-6 to C-29 of a mexicanolide-type limonoid precursor were isolated from the leaves and twigs of Trichilia sinensis. Their structures were assigned by spectroscopic analysis, and the absolute conīŦgurations were determined by X-ray crystallography and CD calculation. A possible biosynthetic pathway of Trichiliasinenoids A was also proposed. The three new limonoids were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against human myeloid leukaemia (HL-60), hepatocellular carcinoma (SMMC-7721), lung cancer (A-549), breast cancer (MCF-7), and colon cancer (SW480) cell lines by MTS assay. Trichiliasinenoid B showed cytotoxicity against HL-60 cells, SMMC-7721 with an IC50 value of 5.2 mM and 30.6 mM, respectively, whereas other limonoids were inactive  and comparable to the cisplatin positive control (IC50: 1.1–17.3 m M).